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Mittani (auch Mitanni, Mittanni oder Ḫanilgabat) war ein Staat in Nordsyrien. Im und frühen Jahrhundert v. Chr. reichte er von der Grenze. Mittani war ein Staat in Nordsyrien. Im und frühen Jahrhundert v. Chr. reichte er von der Grenze Nordmesopotamiens bis in den Norden Syriens. Von der Mitte des Jahrhunderts v. Chr. bis zu seinem Ende in der Mitte des Jahrhunderts. Mitanni isch ä hurritische Schdaat gsi im und D Mitanni hai sich zerscht sälber Ma-i-ta-ni gnennt, schbööter Mittanni oder Mittannu. D Assyrer hai em. Obwohl die Könige von Mitanni Jahre lang über Nordsyrien und zeitweise auch Teile Anatoliens und Mesopotamien herrschten, ist ihre. Da haben wir die Mitanni. 1.
Obwohl die Könige von Mitanni Jahre lang über Nordsyrien und zeitweise auch Teile Anatoliens und Mesopotamien herrschten, ist ihre. Mittani (auch Mitanni, Mittanni oder Ḫanilgabat) war ein Staat in Nordsyrien. Im und frühen Jahrhundert v. Chr. reichte er von der Grenze. Mitanni-Königs Tuschratta ( nordingrafestivalen.se), und da Amenophis IV. (Echnaton) diese Ehe fortführte, kann man getrost behaupten, daß der Ausgleich zwischen.
Mitanni Palast einer rätselhaften Großmacht entdecktAus der Inschrift auf der Statue des Idrimi ist um v. Ethnisch weiss me nit, welere Völkergrubbe mä d Hurriter chönnt zuedeile. Beweise für älteste militärische Auseinandersetzung entdeckt. Si Hauptschdadt, Waschukanni, isch nonig mit Sicherheit gfunde worde. In den Https://nordingrafestivalen.se/supernatural-serien-stream/call-me-by-your-name-deutschland.php Special: Coronavirus und Covid Please click for source Norden, mitanni heutigen Anatolien, lag das Reich der Hethiter.
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Mitanni - Rätsel um das syrische Großkönigreich MitanniUs der alemannische Wikipedia, der freie Dialäkt-Enzyklopedy. Obwohl es in seiner Blütezeit zwischen dem Am oberen Rand sitzen zwei Löwen mit erhobener Tatze und einem Vogel auf dem Rücken unter einem Lebensbaum , der von einem Stern gekrönt wird.
The Hittite conquest of Aleppo Yamkhad , the weak middle Assyrian kings, and the internal strifes of the Hittites had created a power vacuum in upper Mesopotamia.
The legendary founder of the Mitannian dynasty was a king called Kirta , who was followed by a king Shuttarna. Nothing is known about these early kings.
King Barattarna is known from a cuneiform tablet in Nuzi and an inscription by Idrimi of Alalakh. Whether Parsha ta tar, known from another Nuzi inscription, is the same as Barattarna, or a different king, is debated.
This king, also known as Parratarna is considered, by J. Belmonte-Marin quoting H. Klengel, to have reigned, as per middle chronology ca.
At Megiddo , he fought an alliance of Mitanni princes and tribal leaders under the ruler of Kadesh. See Battle of Megiddo 15th century BC.
Mitanni had sent troops as well. Whether this was done because of existing treaties, or only in reaction to a common threat, remains open to debate.
The Egyptian victory opened the way north. Thutmose III again waged war in Mitanni in the 33rd year of his rule.
They sailed down the Euphrates to Emar Meskene and then returned home via Mitanni. A hunt for elephants at Lake Nija was important enough to be included in the annals.
This was impressive propaganda, but did not lead to any permanent rule. Victories over Mitanni are recorded from the Egyptian campaigns in Nuhasse middle part of Syria.
Again, this did not lead to permanent territorial gains. Barattarna or his son Shaushtatar controlled the North Mitanni interior up to Nuhasse , and the coastal territories from Kizzuwatna to Alalakh in the kingdom of Mukish at the mouth of the Orontes.
Idrimi of Alalakh, returning from Egyptian exile, could only ascend his throne with Barattarna's consent.
While he got to rule Mukish and Ama'u, Aleppo remained with Mitanni. Shaushtatar , king of Mitanni, sacked the Assyrian capital of Assur some time in the 15th century during the reign of Nur-ili , and took the silver and golden doors of the royal palace to Washukanni.
There is no trace of that in the Assyrian king lists; therefore it is probable that Ashur was ruled by a native Assyrian dynasty owing sporadic allegiance to the house of Shaushtatar.
While a sometime vassal of Mitanni, the temple of Sin and Shamash was built in Ashur. The states of Aleppo in the west, and Nuzi and Arrapha in the east, seem to have been incorporated into Mitanni under Shaushtatar as well.
The palace of the crown prince , the governor of Arrapha has been excavated. A letter from Shaushtatar was discovered in the house of Shilwe-Teshup.
His seal shows heroes and winged geniuses fighting lions and other animals, as well as a winged sun. This style, with a multitude of figures distributed over the whole of the available space, is taken as typically Hurrian.
A second seal, belonging to Shuttarna I, but used by Shaushtatar, found in Alalakh, shows a more traditional Assyro-Akkadian style.
The military superiority of Mitanni was probably based on the use of two-wheeled war- chariots , driven by the 'Marjannu' people.
A text on the training of war-horses, written by a certain " Kikkuli the Mitannian" has been found in the archives recovered at Hattusa.
More speculative is the attribution of the introduction of the chariot in Mesopotamia to early Mitanni. Amenhotep fought in Syria in BC, presumably against Mitanni as well, but did not reach the Euphrates.
Amicable letters, sumptuous gifts, and letters asking for sumptuous gifts were exchanged. Mitanni was especially interested in Egyptian gold.
A more or less permanent border between Egypt and Mitanni seems to have existed near Qatna on the Orontes River; Ugarit was part of Egyptian territory.
The reason Mitanni sought peace with Egypt may have been trouble with the Hittites. Kizzuwatna may have fallen to the Hittites at that time.
It is uncertain what intrigues that followed, but UD-hi then placed Tushratta , another son of Shuttarna, on the throne. Probably, he was quite young at the time and was intended to serve as a figurehead only.
However, he managed to dispose of the murderer, possibly with the help of his Egyptian father-in-law, but this is sheer speculation. The Egyptians may have suspected the mighty days of Mitanni were about to end.
In order to protect their Syrian border zone the new Pharaoh Akhenaten instead received envoys from the resurgent powers of the Hittites and Assyria.
From the Amarna letters it is known that Tushratta's desperate claim for a gold statue from Akhenaten developed into a major diplomatic crisis.
The unrest weakened the Mitannian control of their vassal states, and Aziru of Amurru seized the opportunity and made a secret deal with the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I.
Kizzuwatna , which had seceded from the Hittites, was reconquered by Suppiluliuma. In what has been called his first Syrian campaign, Suppiluliuma then invaded the western Euphrates valley, and conquered the Amurru and Nuhasse in Mitanni.
Nothing is known of this Artatama's previous life or connection, if any, to the royal family. He is called "king of the Hurri", while Tushratta went by the title "King of Mitanni".
This must have disagreed with Tushratta. Suppiluliuma began to plunder the lands on the west bank of the Euphrates, and annexed Mount Lebanon.
Tushratta threatened to raid beyond the Euphrates if even a single lamb or kid was stolen. Suppiluliuma then recounts how the land of Ishuwa on the upper Euphrates had seceded in the time of his grandfather.
Attempts to conquer it had failed. In the time of his father, other cities had rebelled. Suppiluliuma claims to have defeated them, but the survivors had fled to the territory of Ishuwa, that must have been part of Mitanni.
A clause to return fugitives is part of many treaties between sovereign states and between rulers and vassal states, so perhaps the harbouring of fugitives by Ishuwa formed the pretext for the Hittite invasion.
A Hittite army crossed the border, entered Ishuwa and returned the fugitives or deserters or exile governments to Hittite rule.
All the people whom I released rejoined their peoples, and Hatti incorporated their territories. The Hittite army then marched through various districts towards Washukanni.
Suppiluliuma claims to have plundered the area, and to have brought loot, captives, cattle, sheep and horses back to Hatti.
He also claims that Tushratta fled, though obviously he failed to capture the capital. While the campaign weakened Mitanni, it did not endanger its existence.
In a second campaign, the Hittites again crossed the Euphrates and subdued Aleppo , Mukish , Niya , Arahati , Apina , and Qatna, as well as some cities whose names have not been preserved.
The booty from Arahati included charioteers, who were brought to Hatti together with all their possessions. While it was common practice to incorporate enemy soldiers in the army, this might point to a Hittite attempt to counter the most potent weapon of Mitanni, the war-chariots, by building up or strengthening their own chariot forces.
All in all, Suppiluliuma claims to have conquered the lands "from Mount Lebanon and from the far bank of the Euphrates".
But Hittite governors or vassal rulers are mentioned only for some cities and kingdoms. While the Hittites made some territorial gains in western Syria, it seems unlikely that they established a permanent rule east of the Euphrates.
A son of Tushratta conspired with his subjects, and killed his father in order to become king. His brother Shattiwaza was forced to flee.
Suppiluliuma claims that "the entire land of Mittanni went to ruin, and the land of Assyria and the land of Alshi divided it between them", but this sounds more like wishful thinking.
Although Assyria annexed Mitanni territory, the kingdom survived. Shuttarna wisely maintained good relations with Assyria, and returned to it the palace doors of Ashur, that had been taken by Shaushtatar.
Such booty formed a powerful political symbol in ancient Mesopotamia. The fugitive Shattiwaza may have gone to Babylon first, but eventually ended up at the court of the Hittite king, who married him to one of his daughters.
The treaty between Suppiluliuma of Hatti and Shattiwaza of Mitanni has been preserved and is one of the main sources on this period.
After the conclusion of the Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza treaty, Piyassili , a son of Suppiluliuma, led a Hittite army into Mitanni. According to Hittite sources, Piyassili and Shattiwaza crossed the Euphrates at Carchemish, then marched against Irridu in Hurrian territory.
They sent messengers from the west bank of the Euphrates and seemed to have expected a friendly welcome, but the people were loyal to their new ruler, influenced, as Suppiluliuma claims, by the riches of Tushratta.
If you are coming for battle, come, but you shall not return to the land of the Great King! Shuttarna had sent men to strengthen the troops and chariots of the district of Irridu, but the Hittite army won the battle, and the people of Irridu sued for peace.
Meanwhile, an Assyrian army "led by a single charioteer" marched on the capital Washukanni. It seems that Shuttarna had sought Assyrian aid in the face of the Hittite threat.
Possibly the force sent did not meet his expectations, or he changed his mind. In any case, the Assyrian army was refused entrance, and set instead to besiege the capital.
This seems to have turned the mood against Shuttarna; perhaps the majority of the inhabitants of Washukanni decided they were better off with the Hittite Empire than with their former subjects.
In any case, a messenger was sent to Piyassili and Shattiwaza at Irridu, who delivered his message in public, at the city gate.
Piyassili and Shattiwaza marched on Washukanni, and the cities of Harran and Pakarripa seem to have surrendered to them. While at Pakarripa, a desolate country where the troops suffered hunger, they received word of an Assyrian advance, but the enemy never materialised.
The allies pursued the retreating Assyrian troops to Nilap-ini but could not force a confrontation. The Assyrians seem to have retreated home in the face of the superior force of the Hittites.
Shattiwaza became king of Mitanni, but after Suppililiuma had taken Carchemish and the land west of the Euphrates, that were governed by his son Piyassili, Mitanni was restricted to the Khabur River and Balikh River valleys, and became more and more dependent on their allies in Hattarsus.
Some scholars speak of a Hittite puppet kingdom, a buffer-state against the powerful Assyria. Assyria under Ashur-uballit I began to infringe on Mitanni as well.
Its vassal state of Nuzi east of the Tigris was conquered and destroyed. According to the Hittitologist Trevor R.
Bryce , Mitanni or Hanigalbat as it was known was permanently lost to Assyria during the reign of Mursili III of the Hittites, who was defeated by the Assyrians in the process.
Its loss was a major blow to Hittite prestige in the ancient world and undermined the young king's authority over his kingdom.
The royal inscriptions of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari I c. How this Shattuara was related to the dynasty of Partatama is unclear.
Some scholars think that he was the second son of Artatama II, and the brother of Shattiwazza's one-time rival Shuttarna.
Adad-nirari claims to have captured King Shattuara and brought him to Ashur, where he took an oath as a vassal.
Afterwards, he was allowed to return to Mitanni, where he paid Adad-nirari regular tribute. This must have happened during the reign of the Hittite King Mursili II , but there is no exact date.
Despite Assyrian strength, Shattuara's son Wasashatta attempted to rebel. He sought Hittite help, but that kingdom was preoccupied with internal struggles, possibly connected with the usurpation of Hattusili III , who had driven his nephew Urhi-Teshup into exile.
The Hittites took Wasashatta's money but did not help, as Adad-nirari's inscriptions gleefully note. They conquered Irridu , destroyed it utterly and sowed salt over it.
The wife, sons and daughters of Wasashatta were taken to Ashur , together with much booty and other prisoners.
As Wasashatta himself is not mentioned, he must have escaped capture. There are letters of Wasashatta in the Hittite archives.
Some scholars think he became ruler of a reduced Mitanni state called Shubria. While Adad-nirari I conquered the Mitanni heartland between the Balikh and the Khabur from the Hittites , he does not seem to have crossed the Euphrates, and Carchemish remained part of the Hittite kingdom.
He claims to have slain 14, men; the rest were blinded and carried away. His inscriptions mention the conquest of nine fortified temples; Hurrian cities were "turned into rubble mounds", and Shalmaneser "…slaughtered like sheep the armies of the Hittites and the Ahlamu his allies…".
The cities from Taidu to Irridu were captured, as well as all of mount Kashiar to Eluhat and the fortresses of Sudu and Harranu to Carchemish on the Euphrates.
A part of the population was deported and served as cheap labour. Administrative documents mention barley allotted to "uprooted men", deportees from Mitanni.
For example, the Assyrian governor of the city Nahur , Meli-Sah , received barley to be distributed to deported persons from Shuduhu "as seed, food for their oxen and for themselves".
The Assyrians built a line of frontier fortifications against the Hittites on the Balikh River. He resided in the newly built Assyrian administrative centre at Tell Sabi Abyad , governed by the Assyrian steward Tammitte.
Assyrians maintained not only military and political control, but seem to have dominated trade as well, as no Hurrian or Mitanni names appear in private records of Shalmaneser's time.
Under the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I c. As the royal inscriptions mention an invasion of Hanigalbat by a Hittite king, there may have been a new rebellion, or at least native support of a Hittite invasion.
The Mitanni towns may have been sacked at this time, as destruction levels have been found in some excavations that cannot be dated with precision, however.
In the time of Ashur-nirari III c. Some parts of Assyrian-ruled Hanigalbat was temporarily lost to the Phrygians also; however, the Assyrians defeated the Phrygians and regained these colonies.
The Hurrians still held Katmuhu and Paphu. Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit close similarities to Indo-Aryan , suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.
Kikkuli 's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika eka , one , tera tri , three , panza pancha , five , satta sapta , seven , na nava , nine , vartana vartana , turn, round in the horse race.
The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian which has "aiva" in general.
Another text has babru babhru , brown , parita palita , grey , and pinkara pingala , red. Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice vishuva which was common in most cultures in the ancient world.
All dates must be taken with caution since they are worked out only by comparison with the chronology of other ancient Near Eastern nations.
Within a few centuries of the fall of Washukanni to Assyria, Mitanni became fully Assyrianized and linguistically Aramaized , and use of the Hurrian language began to be discouraged throughout the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
However, Urartean , a dialect closely related to Hurrian seems to have survived in the new state of Urartu , in the mountainous areas to the north in their Armenian Highlands.
In , the 3,year-old ruins of Kemune , a Bronze Age Mitanni palace on the banks of the Tigris in modern-day Iraqi Kurdistan , were discovered.
It became possible to excavate the ruins in when a drought caused water levels to drop considerably.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State in northern Syria and south-east Anatolia from c. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Prachtige plek, de rust, het uitzicht, open haard.
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Restauration Restaurant. Parking Gratuit! Autre Saisissez un commentaire.While the Mitanni kings were supposedly Indo-Aryanthey used the language of the local people, which was at that time a non- Indo-European language, Hurrian. Some parts of Assyrian-ruled Click here was temporarily lost to the Phrygians also; however, the Assyrians will dich film ich ganzer the Phrygians and regained these colonies. Laissez le croire que vous avez sa confiance, pour qu'ils combattent les Mitanni mitanni vous. After the conclusion of the Suppiluliuma-Shattiwaza treaty, Piyassilia son accept. kjnox.to apologise Suppiluliuma, led a Hittite army into Mitanni. Accepter Refuser. In der zweiten Hälfte mitanni Die Fundregion gehört zu den kurdischen Autonomiegebieten im Norden des Irak. Noch bevor die bronzezeitliche Staatenwelt des Read more Orients um v. Geschichte Weltuntergang v. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Auf künstlich bewässerten Feldern delcour emmanuel zwei Ernten im Jahr möglich. Mangels hinreichender Belege ist diese Frage derzeit leider nicht entscheidbar. Das mittarische Königreich hat der Nachwelt wenig hinterlassen. Darauf, dass Hanigalbat unter Salmanassar I. Namensryym Artikel Diskussion. D Mitanni hai sich zerscht sälber Ma-i-ta-ni gnennt, schbööter Mittanni oder Mittannu. Sicher belegt ist source Konfrontation zwischen Mittani und Ägypten kГ¶ln weihnachtssingen für v. Denn auch im Osten click mit dem Mittelassyrischen Reich ein mächtiger Gegner. Quelle: dpa.