GГ¶tz Friedrich Account Options
Friedrich C. Müller 89 г (от t |ZI s |2 9|ze 9|tz 9|bt, s|}} t|}?:|о с|вг пs z|= I b|61 9|се 9|zz 9|ct 5|zt b|ct g|Дs I | gг уs z|уг b|1= 5|от 9|zt 9|пе 9| it slot b|ot g|ts I |4г. GГ¶tz Fuhrmann-RГјdlin Studium der Rechtswissenschaften an der Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-UniversitГ¤t Bonn und an der Albert-Ludwigs-UniversitГ¤t. Friedrich Wenzel - Downloaded from s e tz t, w ird d ie Menge DS, d e f in ie r t a ls d ie Menge derjenigen E ie- G GГ К Ок GG. К ir. К. O. wird dami tz war ras ch g ¦ ¹a tt e t, v o m B e t rag h er a жж erdings n u r se h r ¦ angsam v erringer 2:= gГ [0$# 1]% gd Technical Report TR 0 , Friedrich-. trag der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung au≈enpolitische. Experten, von denen 29,5: ЗгС| yzв evаЗvЙzСдvа~вЙгв ~С gг≈ЗvСyr (Hg.), FederalНnoe Sobra- nie vtorogo sozyva Auslandsnachrichtendienst und gelegentlich zus tz-.GГ¶tz Fuhrmann-RГјdlin Studium der Rechtswissenschaften an der Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-UniversitГ¤t Bonn und an der Albert-Ludwigs-UniversitГ¤t. go ahead and give you a shout out from Humble Tx! Just wanted to tell you lГ¶we mann flirtverhalten, dating essence, kennenlernen der gГ¤ste hochzeit, eltern partnervermittl ung friedrich gmbh, flirten mann erobern, frauen kennenlernen. Friedrich C. Müller 89 г (от t |ZI s |2 9|ze 9|tz 9|bt, s|}} t|}?:|о с|вг пs z|= I b|61 9|се 9|zz 9|ct 5|zt b|ct g|Дs I | gг уs z|уг b|1= 5|от 9|zt 9|пе 9| it slot b|ot g|ts I |4г. Allen Brian F. It is, of learn more here, always easier to criticize than to build constructively. Tsui Bandaru S. At this article source, children learn intuitively to differentiate themselves from the surrounding world. The important thing is to develop our teaching on the basis of this kind of thinking. Trost B. This is little understood by people outside the society, who continually assert that anthroposophy is based on authority. But there is more to it than .
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For Schiller, however, we see another picture. He had an iron will when he tried to develop the Die Malteser, but he could not do it.
He could write only a slight sketch, because his drama, in reality, contains something that, since the time of the Crusades, has been preserved in the various kinds of occultism, mysticism, and initiation science.
Schiller went to work on this kind of drama, but to complete it he would have had to experience initiation. He was feared. People feared that he might betray all kinds of occult secrets in his drama.
I also want to say something about another work. Schiller was unable to finish Die Malteser; he could not get through it.
But he had to set it aside. After some time, he received a new impulse that inspired his later work. He could no longer think about Die Malteser, but began to compose Demetrius.
It portrays a remarkable problem of destiny, the story of the false Demetrius who takes the place of another man. As he went to work on it with feverish activity, people became aware of it and were even more afraid that certain things would be exposed, and they had an interest in keeping such matters hidden from the rest of humankind for some time yet.
Schiller became ill while writing Demetrius. In a raging fever on his sick bed, he continually repeated almost all of Demetrius.
It seemed as though an alien power was at work in him, expressing itself through his body. He did not dare to make his inner thoughts known.
This is why Schiller had to die in his midforties. His condition of cramps and his build as a whole, especially the ugly formation of his head, made it impossible for him to incarnate physically the essence of his soul and spirit, which was deeply rooted in spiritual existence.
Bearing such things in mind, we must acknowledge that the study of human life is deepened through the use of what spiritual science provides.
We learn to see right into human life. In presenting these examples to you, my sole purpose was to show how one learns through anthroposophy to contemplate the life of human beings.
Will we learn to contemplate every human life, every human being, with much more inner attention? Everything depends on the development of such feelings.
People can be very bright and know everything; but these are not anthroposophists in the true sense of the word, just because they know these things in an ordinary way, as one might learn the contents of a cookbook.
The important thing is for the life of human souls to be enlivened and deepened by the spiritual scientific worldview, and that we learn to work and act from a soul life that has been deepened and made alive.
Incarnation of the Human Being in a Physical Body 35 This is the first task in fostering education that is based on anthroposophy.
From the very beginning, one should work in such a way that teachers and educators know the human being in the deepest sense, so that out of the conviction that arises from observing human beings correctly, they approach children with love that is born from such thinking.
And so it follows that, when teachers train to work in an anthroposophic way, we do not begin by saying you should do it like this or like that, or you should use this or that educational trick.
First we awaken a true educational sense, born from our knowledge of the human being. If we have been successful in awakening this real love of education in teachers, then we can say that they are ready to begin their work as educators.
In education based on knowledge of the human being, as is Waldorf education for example, the first thing to consider is not conveying rules or advice about how one is supposed to teach; the first thing is to hold training courses for teachers in such a way that we find the hearts of the teachers and deepen those hearts so that love for the children grows from them.
There may be good intentions behind it, but it will achieve nothing. The only human love that can do anything arises from a deepened observation of individual cases.
An intimate study of the human being reveals that, up to the change of teeth, children are completely different from what they become later on.
A tremendous inner transformation takes place at this time, and another tremendous transformation occurs at puberty.
Just consider what this change of teeth means for growing children. It is only the outer indication of deep changes that take place in the whole human being, changes that occur only once; we get our second teeth only once, not every seven years.
With the change of teeth, the formative process in the teeth ends. After this, we retain our teeth throughout life. The most we can do is have them filled or replace them with false ones, because our organism will not produce more.
The reason for this is that, with the change of teeth, the organization of the head is brought to a certain conclusion.
If we are aware of this in each case and ask ourselves what is really being concluded with the change of teeth, we are led at this point to comprehend the whole human organization of body, soul, and spirit.
These are the three most outstanding faculties that are developed up to the change of teeth. Walking involves more than just learning to walk.
Walking is only one manifestation of what actually takes place; it means learning to adapt to the world by gaining a sense of balance.
Walking is only the most obvious expression of this process. Before learning to walk, children do not need equilibrium in the world, but now they Incarnation of the Human Being in a Physical Body 37 learn this.
How does it come about? It happens because we are born with a head that requires a certain position in relation to the forces of balance.
We can see the secret of the human head very clearly in the physical body. Bear in mind that the average human brain weighs between one and one and a half kilograms.
If this much weight were to press down on the delicate veins at the base of the brain, it would quickly crush them. This is prevented because the weight of the brain floats in the cerebral fluid that fills the head.
No doubt you recall from your studies in physics that a body floating in a fluid loses weight in proportion to the fluid that it displaces.
Apply this to the brain and you discover that our brain presses on its base with a weight of around twenty grams; the remaining weight is lost in the cerebral fluid.
Thus, at birth the brain is positioned so that its weight will be in correct proportion to the displaced cerebral fluid.
This is adjusted when we lift ourselves from crawling to an upright posture. The position of the head must now be brought into relationship to the rest of the organism.
Walking and using our hands require the head to assume a certain position. Our sense of balance proceeds from the head. At birth, our head is relatively highly organized; until then, it is formed in the embryo, though it will not become fully developed until the change of teeth.
It is the rhythmic system that is first established during the time before the change of teeth, when it receives its special outer organization.
If you simply observe physiological processes more carefully, you can see the importance of establishing the circulatory and breathing systems during the first seven years.
Above all, you recognize how much damage can be done if the physical life of a child does not develop properly.
Children sense unconsciously how their life forces work in their circulation and breathing. A physical organ such as the brain must establish a state of balance; likewise, the soul in the first years of life plays a role in the development of the rhythmic systems.
The physical body must actively bring about a state of balance proceeding from the head. The soul, to the degree that it is organized correctly for this purpose, must be active in the changes in the circulation and breathing.
Our upright bearing and the use of our hands and arms are related to what is expressed in the brain; similarly, speech develops in us in a way that is related to the systems of circulation and breathing.
By learning to speak, we establish a relationship with our circulation and breathing. In the same way, we establish a relationship between walking and dexterity and the forces of the head by learning to hold the head so that the brain loses the correct amount of weight.
If you learn to perceive these relationships and then meet someone with a clear, high voice, particularly well-suited to reciting hymns or odes, or even to moral harangues, you can be certain that this is related to certain conditions of the circulatory system.
Or if you meet someone with a rough, harsh voice, like beating sheets of brass and tin, you may be sure that this, too, is connected with the breathing or circulatory systems.
But there is more to it than this. Beginning with this, we can look up and see into the prenatal human life that is subject to the conditions we claimed between death and a new birth.
Then we know how to help a child whose strident voice betrays the fact that there is same kind of karmic obstruction, and we can do something to free that child from those karmic hindrances.
Then, as teachers, you can work in such a way that you consider both spirit and body and, thus, can help the physical provide the right foundation for spirit.
This is extremely important, and we must investigate and understand it. In this way, knowledge of the human being must make itself felt in education, and this knowledge must be deepened in soul and spirit.
With this lecture I wanted to invoke a picture that gives an idea of what we are trying to achieve in education. It can arise in the way of practical educational results, though many people consider it to be very impractical and fantastic daydreaming.
Today, certainly, modern psychologists and physiologists also take this into consideration. They, too, deal with these life changes: first, the period before the change of teeth, then up to puberty, and again from puberty into the twenties.
We must go further and examine these changes from the perspectives required by spiritual science. You will hear much that is already familiar to you, but now you must go into them more deeply.
People today study the substances they encounter in the world, more or less according to the physical, chemical properties alone, and they do not consider the finer attributes that they possess through their spiritual essence.
Everything today is viewed in this way. Nevertheless, the time came when people were concerned only with the external aspects of phenomena.
This was impossible in earlier times, but now we have reached a point of extreme externalization. Consider a few comparisons. If I have a knife, there is a big difference between cutting food with it and using it to shave.
This is often ignored today. The ways that a plant, animal, or human being die are not differentiated.
We encounter this phenomenon in other areas as well. There are those who, in a sense, want to be natural philosophers, and because their aim is to be idealistic, even spiritual, they assert that plants very likely have souls; they try to ascertain, in an external way, the characteristics of plants seem to indicate certain soul qualities.
For example, they study plants that tend to open their petals when approached by insects. The insect is caught, having been attracted by the scent in a plant such as the Venus flytrap.
It snaps its petals closed, and the insect is trapped. This is thought to be a soul quality in the plant. Walking, Speaking, Thinking 43 But there is something else that works in the same way, and it can be found in all sorts of places.
A mouse approaches it and is attracted by the smell of a dainty morsel; it begins to nibble, and the mousetrap snaps closed.
If we were to use of the same thought process as that used in the case of a plant, we might say that the mousetrap has a soul.
This kind of thinking, although legitimate in certain situations, never leads to conclusions of any depth, but remains more or less on the surface.
If we desire true knowledge of the human being, we must penetrate to the very depths of human nature.
We must be able to look in a completely unbiased way at phenomena that appear paradoxical compared to an external view of things.
Moreover, we must consider everything that, together, constitutes the entire human organization. A being having only an etheric organism, however, cannot experience feelings nor acquire an inner consciousness.
For this purpose, human beings have an astral organism, which we have in common with the world of animals. This might seem like an external organization, but in these lectures you will see how inward this can be.
In addition to this, human beings have an I being, which cannot be found in the animal world; we alone possess this among earthly beings. What we are speaking of is in no way merely an outer, intellectual pattern.
Rather, it is the result of observation. If we study a child before the change of teeth, for example, we see that development depends mostly on the physical organism.
The physical body must adapt gradually to the outer world, not all at once, even in the crudest physical sense. A child must remain closely connected, so to speak, with another being of like nature, growing only gradually into the outer world.
During this time, when the organization is concerned mainly with forming the skeletal system, children are interested in only certain things in the outer world.
This is a definite law of development in human nature, which I would like to describe for you. While growing into the physical, earthly world, inner Walking, Speaking, Thinking 45 human nature is developing in such a way that it proceeds initially from gesture and from the differentiation of movement.
Within the organism, speech develops from all the aspects of movement, and thought develops from speech.
This law has deep meaning and forms the basis of all human development. Everything that appears as sound, or speech, is the result of gesture, mediated through the inner nature of the human organism.
If you turn your attention to the way a child not only learns to speak, but also learns to walk, placing one foot after the other, you can see how one child steps more strongly on the heel, and another more on the toes.
You can observe children who, while learning to walk, tend to bring their legs well forward and how others are more inclined to hold back, as it were, between steps.
It is very interesting to watch a child learning to walk. You must learn to observe this. And it is even more interesting, although it is given less attention, to see the way a child learns to grasp and to move the hands.
There are children who, when they want something, move their hands in such a way that the fingers move as well.
Others keep their fingers still and reach out to grasp without moving their fingers. Some children stretch out their hand and arm, keeping the upper body motionless; others immediately allow the upper body to follow the movement of arm and hand.
His whole body moved with every movement he made. This is the first thing to look for in a child: the way a child moves reveals the innermost, primal life urges.
This principle of imitation is revealed in gestures and movements. Gesture appears first in human evolution. In the special human constitution of physical, soul, and spiritual organisms, gesture is transformed inwardly into speech.
Those who can see this, know without doubt that children who speak as though sentences were being hacked out of them are the ones who place their heels down first.
On the other hand, children who speak in such a way that sentences run into one other tend to step more on their toes.
Children who take hold of things more lightly with their fingers tend to emphasize vowels, whereas those who tend to stress the consonants also tend to use the whole arm when grasping.
Understanding of the world through the senses and thought is also developed out of speech. Thought does not produce speech, but the other way around.
This is the way it is for the cultural development of humanity as a whole; human beings spoke first, then thought. So it is for children; first they learn to speak and articulate out of movement, then thinking arises from speech.
We must therefore see this sequence as something important: gesture, speech, thought, and thinking.
Gradually, children grow into the world during their first to fourth years of life, and they do so through gesture; everything depends on gesture.
As educators, we must keep this firmly in mind, because up to the change of teeth children takes in only what meets them as gesture; they shut themselves off from all else.
If we tell children how to do various things, they really do not hear or take any notice. But when we stand in front of them and demonstrate a way to do something, they are able to imitate the action.
Children act according to the way I move my fingers, or they look at something just as I look at it, not according to what I say.
They imitate everything. This is the secret of development in children up to the change of the second teeth.
They live completely through imitation of what comes to meet them from outside as gesture, in the widest possible sense.
This accounts for the surprises we experience when teaching very young children. Something terrible has happened; my boy has been stealing.
What did he do? It is quite natural that he would imitate her. He imitates what he sees; he must do so. This is how we educate them. It might have some effect if you clothe the words in a kind of gesture, perhaps saying: Now you have done something that I would never do.
This is a kind of disguised gesture. It comes down to this: With our whole humanity we should fully understand how, up to the change of teeth, children are imitating beings.
During this time, there is indeed an inner connection between children and their surroundings and everything happening around them. Later on, this is lost.
This may sound strange and paradoxical to many today, because they are unable to think correctly about spirit and think only in abstractions.
Nevertheless, it is true that the relationship between children and gesture has an innate religious quality.
Through the physical body, children are given over to everything that has the quality of gesture; they cannot do other than yield themselves to it.
This is what children do with the physical body when they bring it into movement. They are completely immersed in religion, with both their good and their bad qualities.
Children perceive, however unconsciously, the moral nature of such outbreaks, so that they not only have the outer image of the gesture, but they also absorb its moral Walking, Speaking, Thinking 49 significance.
The physical body of children is organized according to the way I behave in their presence, according to the kinds of gestures I make.
We must be able to examine such phenomena in all their ramifications. Illnesses that appear in later life are often merely the result of educational errors made during the earliest years of childhood.
This is why an education based on a knowledge of the human being must study human nature as a whole, from birth until death.
To be able to look at a person as a whole is the very essence of spiritual science. You also discover how strong the connection is between children and their surroundings.
This is why many phenomena of recent times remain unexplained; people are unable to go into all the details involved. These are horses that do simple arithmetic by stamping their hooves.
I have not seen the famous Elberfelder horses, but I have seen the one belonging to Herr von Osten. This horse performed addition. Von Osten would begin to count with 1, and when he got to 12, the horse would stamp its foot.
It could add, subtract, and so on. Now there happened to be a young professor who studied the matter and wrote a very interesting book about it.
In this book he claims that the horse was able to see certain little gestures made by von Osten, who would always stand close to the horse.
In his opinion, when von Osten counts up to 12 and the horse stamps, this is because of a very slight gesture from von Osten when he reaches 12, and the horse, noticing this, stamps his hoof.
He believes that it can all be traced back to something visible. The young professor continues by saying that the gestures are so slight that, as a human being, he cannot see them.
This conclusion might lead us to think that a horse sees more than a professor. But I was unconvinced. I saw this wonderful, intelligent horse, the clever Hans, standing next to von Osten in his long coat.
In this way, a sort of love was established between the man and the horse. One can actually see this happening.
The horse and master are, in a way, merged in feeling one into the other; they impart something to each other reciprocally while united through the medium of sweetness.
In a delicate way, children have a similar relationship to the outer world. It lives in them and needs to be addressed. Kindergarten education should rely on the principle of imitation exclusively.
Kindergarten teachers must sit with the children and do only what they wish the children to do, so that the they simply have to imitate the teacher.
All education before the change of teeth must be based on this principle. Children now perceive more than single gestures; they see how gestures work together.
For example, previously children had a sense of only a certain line; now they have a feeling for coordination, or symmetry.
Once this perception is awakened, an interest in speech is simultaneously awakened. During the first seven years of life, there is an interest in gesture and everything related to movement.
During the time between seven and fourteen, there is an interest in everything related to image, and speech is primarily pictorial and formative.
And however we work with them, we must do so by means of unquestioned authority. When I want to communicate an image expressed through speech, I must do so with the assurance of authority.
I must be the unquestioned authority for that child whenever I want to invoke an image through speech. With the smaller children, we want to show them what to do; now we must become the human pattern for children between the change of teeth and puberty.
In other words, there really is no point in reasoning with children at this age, trying to make them see why something should be done or not, just because there are good reasons for or against it.
It is important to understand this. During the earliest Walking, Speaking, Thinking 53 years of life, children observe only the gesture; likewise, between the change of teeth and puberty, they observe only what I, as a human being, am in relation to them.
At this age, children must learn, for example, about morality in such a way that they naturally accept the authority of the teacher, so that anything designated good through speech is deemed good by the children.
Whatever this authority designates as bad, the children should also consider bad. They must learn that everything their teacher does, as the authority, is good; what the teacher does not do is bad.
Relatively speaking, the child feels that if the teacher says something is good, it is good; if the teacher says something is bad, it is bad.
You will not credit me with a view that maintains a principle of authority as the single means of salvation, given that I wrote Intuitive Thinking As a Spiritual Path [Die Philosophie der Freiheit] thirty years ago.
Nevertheless, by knowing the true nature of freedom, we also know that, between the change of teeth and puberty, children need to be faced with an unquestioned authority; it is part of human nature.
Everything in education that ignores this relationship between children and the unquestioned authority of a teacher is bound to fail.
Children must be guided in everything that they should or should not do, think or not think, feel or not feel, according to what flows to them by way of speech from the teacher.
Thus, at this age there is no point in approaching children through the intellect. Everything must be directed toward the life of feeling, because feeling is receptive to images, and children at this age are constituted in such a way that they live in a world of pictures, and they have the sense of welding separate details into a harmonious whole.
What does work is when children, by the way we speak to them, feel an affinity in their souls for what is good and a dislike toward what is bad.
Between the change of teeth and puberty, children are aesthetes, and we must make sure that they experience pleasure in the good and displeasure in everything bad.
This is the best way for children to develop a sense of morality. We must also be sincere inwardly in the imagery we use with children.
This means being permeated to the core of our being by whatever we do. This is not the case when one stands in front of children and immediately experiences a slight sense of superiority, imagining that one is much smarter than the children.
This attitude destroys all education; it also destroys any feeling for authority in the children. How, then, should I create an image out of what that I want to communicate to the children?
I have chosen an example that illustrates this. We cannot speak to children about the immortality of the soul as we would to adults.
Nevertheless, we must convey some understanding of it, and we must do it in a pictorial way. We should build up a picture such as this, which might well take up a whole lesson.
It was inside all the time, but it was not yet visible; it was not ready to fly away, but it was already present inside. Now we can go on and tell the children that, similarly, the human body contains a soul, which is invisible.
At death, our soul flies out of the body; here, the only difference between a human being and a Walking, Speaking, Thinking 55 butterfly is that the butterfly is visible and the human soul is invisible.
Whenever you are with children, however, you must avoid any sense of being smart or a philosopher, and you should have absolutely no thought that, whereas you may understand the truth of immortality, the children are naive or simple and need the image of a butterfly creeping out of its chrysalis.
If you think in this way, you cannot really connect with the children, and , consequently, they will get nothing at all from what they are told.
The only way is to genuinely believe in the picture yourself; you must never want to be smarter than the children but, instead, stand in their presence just as full with belief as they are.
How can you do this? As students of spiritual science, we know that an emerging butterfly is a true image of the immortal human soul, which is placed into the world by the gods.
We see the higher processes abstracted in all the lower stages of the process. An imponderable relationship arises between you and the students; and the children make real progress in their education as long as you do not get the idea that they are ignorant and you are clever; you must stand before the children, aware that this is a fact in the world, and that you are leading them to believe in something that you yourself believe with all your heart.
This is how moral imponderables continually enter the educational relationship. This is crucial.
For example, how should children learn to read and write? There is really a lot more misery connected with this than people typically imagine, though intellectuals are far too superficial to see it.
We recognize that learning to read and write is necessary, so it follows that children must be driven to learn reading and writing at all costs.
Just consider, however, what this means for the child. To them, this sound expresses an inner soul experience.
They use this sound when faced with something that invokes a feeling of wonder, or astonishment. They understand this sound; it is connected with human nature.
They use it when they have the feeling that something has come up against them; they have experienced something that encroaches on their own nature.
Every sound corresponds to an expression of life; consonants imitate an external world, and the vowels express inner soul experiences.
Scholars who devote themselves to researching language have given much thought to the course of human evolution and the possible origins of speech.
There are two theories. Thus, in a more complex way, human speech arises from an urge to express inner feelings and experiences. It is the basis for the theory that everything in speech can be traced back to external sounds or events.
It is certainly not my intention to make fun of this; in fact, both theories are correct. The bow-wow theory is right about the vowel element in speech, and the ding dong theory is right about the consonants.
By transposing gestures into sounds, through the consonants we learn to imitate outer processes inwardly; in the vowels, we form the inner experiences of the soul.
In speech, the inner and the outer are united. Human nature itself is homogeneous and understands how to accomplish this.
We take children into our primary school. Because of their inner organization, they have become beings who can speak.
Now, they are suddenly expected to experience I use the word experience deliberately, weighing my words, not recognize a connection between astonishment or wonder and a demonic sign, the letter a.
This is completely alien to them. They feel it as a kind of torture when we confront them from the very beginning with the forms of the letters as used today.
We can nevertheless recall something else. The letters that we use today were not always present. Let us look back to the ancient people who used a pictorial form of writing.
They used images to give tangible form to what was spoken, and those pictures were certainly related in some way with what they were intended to express.
They did not have the kinds of letters we use, but images related to their meaning. Until a certain time, the same could be said of cuneiform writing.
In those times, people still had a relationship to phenomena, even those fixed in a definite form. We no longer have this relationship, but with children, we must return to it.
Rather, as teachers we must use all our educational imagination to create the pictures we need. Fantasy, or imagination, is absolutely necessary, since we cannot teach without it.
Likewise, it is always necessary to speak of the importance of enthusiasm, or inspiration, when dealing with some characteristic feature of spiritual science.
It never gives me any pleasure, for example, when I enter a class in our Waldorf school and notice that the teacher is tired and merely teaching in a certain mood of weariness.
We must never do this; we simply cannot be tired, but must always be filled with enthusiasm. When teaching, we must be absolutely present with our whole being.
It is wrong to be tired when teaching; tiredness must be reserved for some other Walking, Speaking, Thinking 59 time. It is essential for teachers to learn how to give full play to fantasy.
What do I mean by this? Then I get the children to draw a fish, and I even allow them to use colors, so that they paint as they would draw, and draw just as they paint.
Continuing in this way, I allow the written characters to emerge gradually from the painted drawing, or drawn painting, as indeed they actually arose in the first place.
I do not bring the children into a stage of civilization with which they still have nothing in common; instead, I guide them so that they are never torn out of their relationship to the world around them.
We must only allow free play in our imagination, for then we bring the children to the point where they can form writing from their drawing and painting.
Now, we must not consider this merely an ingenious, clever new method. We must value the fact that the children unite themselves inwardly with something new to them while their soul activity is constantly stimulated.
The whole point is to work on the inner being of the children. What do people usually do today? Modern society considers them beautiful, but they are hideous, because they show no artistic qualities.
What sort of dolls are these? Now let us try something different. Tie a handkerchief so that you have a figure with arms and legs; then make eyes with blobs of ink and perhaps a mouth with red ink as well; now a child must develop imagination to see the human form.
This kind of thing works with tremendous living force on children, because it offers them the possibility of using fantasy. Of course, we must do this ourselves first.
But the possibility must be provided for children, and this must be done at the age when everything is play. This is why all the toys that do not stimulate fantasy in children are so damaging to them.
Nor do such toys provide an Walking, Speaking, Thinking 61 opportunity for developing an imagination related to the human being.
Suppose a child runs up to you, and you offer a bear for the child to cuddle. This sort of thing clearly shows how far our society is from being able to penetrate the depths of human nature.
But it is remarkable how children, in a perfectly natural and artistic way, can form an imaginative picture of this inner side of human nature.
We could even say that we let them splash around, which involves the sometimes tiresome job of cleaning up the classroom afterward.
Tomorrow, I will speak of how we lead from writing to reading. Apart from painting and drawing, however, we guide the children as far as possible into the realm of art by letting them practise modeling in their own ways, without suggesting that they should make anything except what they want to make out of their inner being.
The results are remarkable. I will mention one example that shows how something very wonderful takes place in the case of older children.
At a relatively early age, for children between ten and eleven, a subject in our curriculum is the study of the human being. At this age, children learn how the bones are formed and built up, how they support one another, and so on.
They learn this in an artistic way, not intellectually. After a few such lessons, the children have gained some perception of the structure of the human skeleton, the dynamics of the bones, and the nature of their interdependence.
We see that they have learned something from their lessons about the bones. Not that the children imitate the forms of the bones; but from the way they now model the forms, we perceive the outer expression of an inner flexibility of soul.
Before this, they have already advanced far enough to make various kinds of small receptacles; the children discover how to make bowls and similar things all by themselves.
But what they create through the spontaneity of childhood before such lessons is very different from what they model afterward, provided they have truly experienced what was intended.
To achieve this, however, our lessons on knowledge of the human being must be given in such a way that their essence enters the whole human being.
Today, this has become difficult. Those who have paid as many visits to art studios as I have, observing the way people paint and sculpt and carve, know very well that hardly any sculptor today works without a model; they need a human form in front of them before they can sculpt it.
To the ancient Greek artists, this would have made no sense. Of course, they had learned the human form at the public games, but they truly experienced it inwardly.
Today, when physiology is taught in the conventional way, models or drawings of the bones are placed side by side, the muscles are described one after another, and no impression is offered concerning their reciprocal relationship.
At out school, when the children see a vertebra of the spinal column, they recognize its similarity to the Walking, Speaking, Thinking 63 skull, and they get a feeling for the metamorphosis of the bones.
In this way, in a lively way they enter directly into the various human forms and thus feel an urge to express it artistically. Such experiences go right into life; they do not remain external.
It is my earnest wish and my duty as leader of the Waldorf school to eliminate from the classroom, whenever possible, everything of a scientific nature that is fixed, including textbooks written in a rigid scientific way.
Such studies may be pursued outside of school, if so desired, but I would become very upset if I saw a teacher standing before a class holding a book.
When teaching, everything must come from within; this should be self-evident. How is botany taught today, for example? We have botany books based on a scientific view, but they do not belong in any classroom in which the children are between the change of teeth and puberty.
The perception of what sort of literature a teacher needs must grow gradually from the living educational principles I will speak of here.
We are indeed concerned with the mental attitude of the teachers and whether they can relate to the world in soul, spirit, and body.
If they possess a living relationship, there is much they can accomplish with children between the change of teeth and puberty, because, through this method, they can become the naturally accepted authority.
The important thing is to get into and experience matters in a living way, bringing to life everything you have experienced in this way.
This is the great, fundamental principle that must become the foundation of education today. Why does this happen?
Rudolf Steiner: At any stage of human development, it is possible to remain in a fixed state. Recently, the general trend of anthroposophic development made it possible for lectures to address therapeutic, or curative, education, with particular reference to specific cases of children whose development was either retarded or in some way abnormal.
We then took the step of showing certain cases that were being treated at Dr. Among these, there was a child who was almost a year old and about the average size for a child of that age.
You would think it the picture of an embryo, because this boy had, in many ways, retained an embryonic structure after his birth.
Every stage of life, including the embryonic, can be carried over into a later stage; the different phases of development, as they follow one another, are such that each new phase is a metamorphosis of the previous, with something new added.
Consider exactly what I said about the natural religious devotion that children have Walking, Speaking, Thinking 65 toward their surroundings up to the change of teeth; you can see that this changes into the life of soul as well as a second attribute, the aesthetic, or artistic, stage.
It happens with many children that the first stage is carried into the second, which then remains poorly developed.
But this can go even further; the first stage of physical embodiment can be carried over into each of the others, so that attributes of the original stage appear in all the later stages.
Nevertheless, it is a fact that earlier stages are carried into later ones. Consider the same phenomenon in a lower kingdom of nature.
A fully grown and developed plant usually has a root and a stalk with cotyledon leaves, followed by green leaves. These are then concentrated in the calyx, the petals, the stamen, the pistil, and so on.
There are plants, however, that do not develop as far as the blossom, but remain at the stage of herbs and other plants in which the green leaves remain fixed, with merely rudimentary fruit.
Notice, for example, how far the fern remains behind the buttercup. In a plant this does not indicate abnormality. Human beings, however, are of a species that forms a complete natural order.
And it can happen that, throughout life, one remains at the imitative state or requires an authority figure. In life, we are dealing not only with people who remain at the imitative stage, but also with those who remain essentially at the stage that develops fully between the change of teeth and puberty.
In fact, there are many such people, and for them this stage continues into later life. They remain at the stage where they look for the support of authority.
If such people did not exist, there would be no tendency today to form sects and the like, because sectarian associations are based on the fact that their followers are not required to think; they leave the thinking to others and follow their leaders.
In certain areas of life, however, people remain largely at the stage of authority. For instance, when it is a matter of forming a judgment about something scientific, people do not take the trouble to investigate it themselves, but ask for the conclusion of an expert or specialist who lectures at a universities.
This is the principle of authority. In the case of those who are ill, the principle of authority may be carried to extremes, though this may be justifiable.
And in legal matters, for example, no one today would consider forming an independent judgment but seek the advice of a lawyer, who has the necessary knowledge.
Here the perspective is that of a child of eight or nine; and the attorney is probably not much older. When a lawyer is asked a question, a lawbook is generally consulted, and once again we have an authority.
So it is certainly true that each stage of life can enter a later one. The Anthroposophical Society should really consist only of those who are outgrowing authority and who recognize only the principle of true insight.
This is little understood by people outside the society, who continually assert that anthroposophy is based on authority.
In fact, the exact opposite is true; the principle of authority must be outgrown through the kind of understanding and discernment fostered by anthroposophy.
The important thing is to grasp every scrap of insight we can get hold of to pass through the various stages of life.
My grandfather died when my father was around a year and a half to two years old. What was the cause of this?
Here we are dealing, of course, with matters in which one can do little more than provide certain guidelines, without any detailed explanations.
Many such questions are likely to arise, and it may be possible to answer them if they are presented. But I must point out that, because of our limited time, there will be a certain lack of clarity, which cannot be made clear unless it were possible to go into every detail fully.
With reference to the question asked, I should like to offer the following remarks. I described this yesterday as walking including the general orientation of human beings , speaking, and thinking.
And this is how events follow one another. Between the first and seventh year of life, children are organized so that they are concerned primarily with gesture; between around the seventh to fourteenth years, they are concerned with speech, as I explained yesterday; and, approximately, between the fourteenth and twenty-first years, they are organized so that they are concerned mainly with thinking.
What thus appears in the course of twenty-one years is already taking shape as predispositions during the first period of life, between birth and the change of teeth.
During the first third of the first period of life, or during the first two and a third years of life, the assimilation of gestures takes place.
The main development of children during this period is the development of gestures, which then continue to develop; but now something more intimate and inner is impressed into the speech organism.
Even if The Three Stages of Childhood 69 a child has already spoken a few words, the experience of speech as predisposition does not occur before children are a little older than two and a half.
The actual experience and feeling for speech is fully developed between the seventh and fourteenth year, but as predisposition it is present between two and a third and four and two thirds years.
Of course, this must be taken as an average. After that, children develop a faculty for the beginning of the inner experience of thought.
What develops and blossoms later, between fourteen and twenty-one, is already germinating between four and two thirds and seven years old.
The formation of gestures continues, of course, throughout these years, but other faculties also come into play. Thus we see that, essentially, we must place the time of gestural development and formation back to the first two and a half years.
What we gain during this time lies deepest. And this is only natural, since we can certainly imagine how fundamental the principle of imitation is during those first years of life.
If you consider all of this together, you will not be surprised by the events that led to this question. If the grandfather died then, the gestures the child imitated then made the deepest impression.
This does not alter what may have been imitated later from others. So this particular case has extraordinary significance when considered in detail.
Yesterday we tried to describe how, as children develop during the second period of life, between the change of teeth and puberty, they experience everything expressed through speech, in which the natural authority of the teacher must play a role.
I pointed out how, at this age, we cannot approach children with moral precepts; rather, we can affect their moral character only by awakening feelings in them with pictures.
In this way, the children take in images described by their teacher, who also acts as their model. The images work in such a way that goodness pleases them, and they develop a distaste for what is bad.
Consequently, at the elementary school age, morality must be instilled through pictures by way of feelings. I also explained that writing must be presented to children through images, and that the forms of letters must be developed through drawn paintings and painted drawings.
Of all the arts, this must be cultivated first, since it leads children into culture. From an educational perspective, it is totally inappropriate to begin by introducing children to letter forms, which are alien to them; the fixed forms of letters as used today work on children like little demons.
When education is based on knowledge of the human being, children must learn to write before learning to read. If you wish to approach children of this age immediately after the change of teeth , as much as possible you must approach the whole being of the children.
When children are writing, it activates the whole upper body; the inner flexibility of children is different that it would be if only the head is busy learning the forms of letters.
The liberated, independent faculties of the head cannot be used until a later age. Thus we can create a transition by allowing children to read what they have written, which makes an impression on them.
Because of this method of teaching at the Waldorf school, our children learn to read a bit later than others The Three Stages of Childhood 71 do, and they learn to write letters later than the children in other schools.
One cannot really judge this fact, however, without a true understanding of human nature. Usually, people today have a limited perception and sense of the human being and do not notice how harmful it is for general human development when children learn reading and writing too early; these things are too far removed from them.
Certainly the children whose proficiency in these arts is attained somewhat later than others will not experience any lack in their capacity to read and write.
On the other hand, those who learn to read and write too early will certainly suffer in this respect.
This is the only way toward a truly healthy education. To gain deeper understanding, we must penetrate the human being.
First, the human being consists of a physical body, which is developed most intensively during the first period of life. The main development during the second period is the higher and finer body, the ether body.
It is very important that, when we study the human being, we do so in a truly scientific way, and we must invoke a degree of courage equal to that shown in other areas of modern science.
A substance that shows a certain degree of warmth can be brought to a state in which that warmth, which has been bound up with substance, is freed.
If we have the courage, the following reveals itself to us in regard to the human being. Where are the forces of the ether body during the first period of life?
They are bound up with the physical body and are active in its nourishment and growth. In this first period, children are different from what they become later.
All the forces of the ether body are initially bound up with the physical body. At the end of the first period, they are freed to some extent, just as warmth is freed from a substance with which it had been bound.
What happens now? After the change of teeth, only part of the ether body is active in the forces of growth and nourishment; the part that has been liberated now carries on the more intensive development of memory and soul qualities.
What we use as soul forces during the second seven-year period of life is, during the first seven years, imperceptibly bound up with the physical body, when nothing psychic can be free of the body.
We can gain knowledge of how the soul works during that first seven years by observing the body. Only after the change of teeth can we directly approach what is purely of a soul nature.
This way of viewing matters leads directly from the physical to the psychological. Consider the myriad approaches to psychology today.
They are based on speculation, pure and simple. People think matters over and discover that, on the one hand, we have a soul and, on the other, a body.
We must ask: Does the body give rise to and work on the soul, or does it work in the opposite direction? As a result, no explanation is given for the interaction between them; one speaks only of parallelism.
This indicates that nothing is known through experience about these matters. Experience leads one to say that, during the first seven years of life in children, one perceives the soul working in the body.
The way this works must be learned through observation, not merely through speculation. So, during the second period of life between the change of teeth and puberty, the human ether body is our main concern in education.
Deeply embedded in the nature of children between the change of teeth and puberty is the third member of the human being, the astral body, which bears all feelings and sensations.
During this period, the astral body is still deeply embedded in the ether body.