Wer hat Schuld an Krieg und Kriegsverbrechen? Wie konnte es in einem zivilisierten Land soweit kommen? Mit Plakaten und Filmen, die Bilder aus den. Die Schrift Die Schuldfrage erschien erstmals und fasst die Überlegungen zusammen, die Jaspers in einer vielbesuchten Vorlesung im Wintersemester. Sie versuchte die Schuldfrage wissenschaftlich zu klären und wollte die Schuldanteile und Völkerrechtsverletzungen von einem Schiedsgericht untersuchen. llll➤ Der große Unfall-Ratgeber zur "Schuldfrage", z.B. wie die Schuldfrage beim Autounfall geklärt wird, wie die Versicherung reagiert uvm. Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'Schuldfrage' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache.
Die Polizisten können einen Unfallbericht anfertigen und Schäden am Auto dokumentieren. Zahlt die Versicherung, wenn die Schuldfrage ungeklärt ist? Nein, die. Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'Schuldfrage' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Schuldfrage: Was bedeutet Schuld? Umgang mit Fehlern im Arbeitsalltag; Verantwortung für das eigene Handeln übernehmen; Statt Klärung der.
Indeed, his extraordinary skills of critical thinking and abstract observation on human situations were evident already then.
From onward, Jaspers read philosophy systematically. In he published his Allgemeine Psychopathologie General Psychopathology which already made apparent the viewpoints and methods that belong to the world of the humanities and social studies that were regarded by him as converging into psychopathology.
In the same year, he obtained his second doctorate Habilitation in psychology from the Philosophy Faculty at the University of Heidelberg, supervised by Wilhelm Windelband.
He was a lecturer and later an Associate Professor of Psychology Privatdozent from to During this period, in , he published his Psychologie der Weltanschauungen Psychology of World Views.
This work is considered as a transitional work, in which his psychological method was clearly shaped by philosophical influences and objectives, and was already evolving into a consistent philosophical doctrine and acquiring some of the main issues that were to be explored later within his philosophy of existence.
Then, in , he took over the full professorial chair of philosophy in the University of Heidelberg after Heinrich Maier , a position from which he was dismissed in by the Nazis.
To a large extent, the two first major publications were works of psychology that contain many elements, albeit in inchoate form, of his later philosophy.
Following his nomination as professor, he wrote nothing for ten years, except for two small works—a patholography Stirnberg and van Gogh in and Die Idee der Universität The Idea of the University in His intellectual formation was marked in a number of ways by this intellectual milieu.
This period witnessed the dethroning of neo-Kantianism as the philosophical orthodoxy in the German academic establishment, and it was marked by a proliferation of philosophical models which rejected Kantian formalism and sought to integrate experiential, historical and even sociological elements into philosophical discourse.
His early career as professor of philosophy was also deeply and adversely affected by neo-Kantian hostility to his work. Indeed, both neo-Kantians and phenomenological philosophers subjected his work to trenchant criticism in the early stages of his philosophical trajectory, and members of both these camps, especially Rickert and Edmund Husserl, accused him of importing anthropological and experiential questions into philosophy and thus of contaminating philosophical analysis with contents properly pertaining to other disciplines.
If Weber was the first decisive personal influence and Kant was the first decisive philosophical influence on Jaspers, in the early s he encountered a further figure who assumed a decisive role in his formation: that is, Martin Heidegger.
Throughout their theoretical trajectories, the differences between Heidegger and Jaspers were in many ways greater than the similarities.
In , Jaspers himself was briefly tempted into making certain incautiously optimistic statements about the Hitler regime.
Indeed, these were remarks were not entirely out of keeping with his other publications of the early s. In the last years of the Weimar Republic he published a controversial political work, Die geistige Situation der Zeit The Spiritual Condition of the Age , , which—to his later acute embarrassment—contained a carefully worded critique of parliamentary democracy.
Throughout this period, he also stressed the relevance of Weberian ideas of strong leadership for the preservation of political order in Germany.
The souring of his relations with Heidegger, however, seems to have hardened his mind into a strict and sustained opposition to National Socialism, and, unlike Heidegger, his works of the s avoided political themes and were largely concentrated on elaborating the interior or religious aspects of his philosophy.
In , he published his trilogy Philosophie , consisting of three separate volumes, each based on its own object of transcending: Weltorientierung Orientation of the World , Existenzerhellung Illumination of Existence and Metaphysik Metaphysics.
This book is generally considered as his magnum opus and he testified in retrospect that is was the closest work to his heart. Despite the at times envenomed relations between them, however, Heidegger and Jaspers are usually associated with each other as the two founding fathers of existential philosophy in Germany.
This interpretation of their philosophical status and relationship is at least questionable. Heidegger resented being described as an existentialist, and Jaspers, at least after , resented being identified with Heidegger.
Nonetheless, there remains a residue of validity in the common association of Heidegger and Jaspers, and, although it requires qualification, this association is not in every respect misleading.
Existentialism was, and remains, a highly diffuse theoretical movement, and it cannot be expected that two philosophers connected with this movement should hold similar views in all respects.
However, existentialism had certain unifying features, and many of these were common to both Jaspers and Heidegger.
If this definition of existentialism is accepted, then the suggestion of a family connection between Jaspers and Heidegger cannot be entirely repudiated, for both contributed to the reorganization of philosophical questioning in the s in a manner which conforms to this definition.
During the Nazi period from onwards, Jaspers was excluded from any co-operation in the administration of the university until he was dismissed from his chair as a professor in and was subject to a publication ban Publikationsverbot.
During the war, he and his wife were in no physical danger. Yet he felt himself a marked man until the end of World War II.
Jaspers once heard indirectly that there was a plan to deport him and his wife to a concentration camp in the middle of April Fortunately, the American troops arrived in Heidelberg two weeks earlier, on April 1 st However, after , his fortunes changed dramatically, and he figured prominently on the White List of the US-American occupying forces: that is, on the list of politicians and intellectuals who were deemed untarnished by any association with the NSDAP, and who were allowed to play a public role in the process of German political re-foundation.
From this time on Jaspers defined himself primarily as a popular philosopher and educator. In the first role, he contributed extensive edifying commentaries on questions of political orientation and civic morality—first, in the interim state of —, and then, after , in the early years of the Federal Republic of Germany.
In the second role, as one of the professors responsible for reopening the University of Heidelberg, to which he was appointed by the American Army of Occupation as a contemporary rector, he wrote at length on the necessity of university reforms, he emphasized the role of liberal humanistic education as a means of disseminating democratic ideas throughout Germany, and he took a firm line against the rehabilitation of professors with a history of Nazi affiliation.
In , The Idea of the University was published in an essentially different form from the book with the same title from The later work presents the university as a free community of scholars and students engaged in the task of seeking truth.
As such, the university and the scholars that populate it can and should play a decisive role in rehabilitation of Europe based on the noblest ideas of the enlightenment.
At that time and still, Jaspers is one of few who can justly speak for value and the need for such a stance against the threats upon freedom and humanity.
His contribution to the promotion of a democratic civic culture in West Germany at this time was of great importance, and his writings and radio broadcasts shaped, in part, the gradually evolving democratic consensus of the early Federal Republic.
In Die Schuldfrage The Question of German Guilt , , published at the time of the Nürnberg trials, he argued that, although not all Germans could be legitimately brought to trial for war crimes, all Germans should accept an implicit complicity in the holocaust and only the critical self-reflection of all Germans could lead to cultural and political renewal.
In the s, he supported the main policies of the liberal-conservative governments led by Konrad Adenauer — , and he particularly endorsed the formation of the Western Alliance, which he saw as a means of protecting the cultural resources of Western European culture from their colonization by the Soviet Union.
In this respect, he can be viewed as an important precursor of Jürgen Habermas, and his works contain an early conception of the doctrine later known as constitutional patriotism.
His views on German re-unification were also particularly influential; he opposed the dominant outlooks of the time by claiming that the demand for re-unification meant that German politics remained infected with the damaging traces of old geo-political ideas and ambitions, and it prevented the fundamental redirection of German political life.
Finally, then, in symbolic demonstration of disgust at the persistence of pernicious political attitudes in Germany he relinquished his German citizenship, and, having earlier moved across the border to University of Basel in , he became a Swiss national.
In his last works, he placed himself closer to the political left, and he even argued that only a legal revolution could ensure that the German state was organized on the basis of a morally decisive constitution.
He died of a stroke in Basel, Switzerland on February 26 at the age of His wife, Gertrud Jaspers, who served as his amanuensis throughout his entire life as a scholar, died in Basel on May 25 at the age of As a young man, he authored a number of scientific articles on homesickness and crime, on intelligence tests, on hallucinations — all illustrated with detailed case histories.
Also, Jaspers published reports of the mental pathology of Van Gogh and Stirnberg. At the age of barely thirty, in , while he was working as a physician in the psychiatric hospital at Heidelberg, Jaspers published his Allgemeine Psychopathologie: Ein Leitfaden für Studierenden, Ärzte und Psychologen General Psychopathology: A Guide for Students, Physicians and Psychologists.
The aims of this book were to provide the framework of the scientific field of psychopathology and its related facts and approaches, not only for practitioners in this filed but also for interested intellectuals.
This framework covers the problems and methods that capture the body of knowledge of the field rather than empirical evidence or a system based on a theory.
Instead of deciding between the different existing approaches of his time, he stressed their peculiarity that entails the inherent justifications and the way they might complement each other and together portray the many sides of the psychopathological science.
Just two years later, Jaspers moved away forever from psychiatric practice and medicine in general, first towards psychology and then philosophy.
Interestingly, though, Jaspers saw fit to revise and expand the text in a few of its several editions. The first edition is the shortest.
In the second and third editions, there were minor changes. The most considerably revised and expanded edition is the fourth, which appeared in To a large extent, the integration of many ideas from his then already mature existential philosophy from the thirties onwards, which more than doubled the scope of the text, in fact amount to a new version of the book.
Now, the subtitle that appeared in the earlier versions was removed and in the preface Jaspers indicates its high aim of satisfying the demand for knowledge, not only for physicians but for all who make mankind their theme.
In this enlarged version of the book, the imprint of Husserl's descriptive psychology is apparent in the attempt to address the inner mental experiences of mentally ill people mainly schizophrenic patients and regard them as indicative of the general phenomena of human consciousness, i.
Notwithstanding this, Jaspers opposed the attempts to address existentialist ideas for the sake of understanding mental illness.
For him it is not possible that a human being as a whole falls ill or alternatively that illness of any kind can cover one's entire being, rather there are always parts that remain uninfected with illness or healthy.
It is worth noting that the appearance of the fourth edition of General Psychopathology was enabled despite the publication ban to which Jaspers was subject since for his outspoken and uncompromising resistance to the Nazis regime and his persistent loyalty to his Jewish wife.
Probably the same title from and the scientific character, which covered the fact of incorporation of the of considerable sections which where imprinted with his philosophical thinking, were helpful in this regard.
Despite ceasing practicing psychiatry, Jaspers retain his interest in psychopathology and was fully aware of the developments in the field, in particular regarding the neurological and somatic aspects of mental illness.
However, after the fourth edition appeared, five more were printed in the same format as the fourth, the latest appearing in An English translation exists for the seventh edition only and was published in by J.
Hoenig and Miriam Hamilton. The underlying argument in this work is that the constitutive fact of human mental life is the division between subject and object Subjekt-Objekt-Spaltung.
Human psychological forms—or world views—are positioned as antinomical moments within this founding antinomy, and they give distinct paradigmatic expression to the relation between human subjective inclinations and freedoms and the objective phenomena which the subject encounters.
Unlike Weber, however, Jaspers argued that the construction of world views is not a merely neutral process, to be judged in non-evaluative manner.
Instead, all world views contain an element of pathology; they incorporate strategies of defensiveness, suppression and subterfuge, and they are concentrated around false certainties or spuriously objectivized modes of rationality, into which the human mind withdraws in order to obtain security amongst the frighteningly limitless possibilities of human existence.
World views, in consequence, commonly take the form of objectivized cages Gehäuse , in which existence hardens itself against contents and experiences which threaten to transcend or unbalance the defensive restrictions which it has placed upon its operations.
Although some world views possess an unconditioned component, most world views exist as the limits of a formed mental apparatus. It is the task of psychological intervention, Jaspers thus argued, to guide human existence beyond the restricted antinomies around which it stabilizes itself, and to allow it decisively to confront the more authentic possibilities, of subjective and objective life, which it effaces through its normal rational dispositions and attitudes.
Most modes of rationality, he suggested, are conveniently instrumental or ideological forms, which serve distinct subjective and objective functions, and they habitually stand in the way of genuine knowledge.
At the same time, however, he also claimed that rationality possesses capacities of communicative integrity and phenomenological self-overcoming, and, if authentically exercised, it is able to escape its narrowly functional form, to expose itself to new contents beyond its limits and antinomies, and to elaborate new and more cognitively unified conceptual structures.
He therefore indicated that formal-epistemological concepts of rationality must be expanded to recognize that experience and committed actions are formative of authentic knowledge, and that reason cannot, in Cartesian manner, be monadically dislocated from its historical, sensory, experiential and voluntaristic foundations.
From the outset, therefore, Jaspers's work, although methodologically marked by Weber, was also indelibly stamped by Hegel's philosophy, and it sought to integrate the preconditions of Hegel's phenomenology into a systematic psychological doctrine.
In this, he transposed the dialectical process through which Hegel accounted for the overcoming of cognitive antinomies in the emergence of self-consciousness into an analysis of cognitive formation which sees the resolution of reason's antinomies as effected through vital experiences, decisive acts of self-confrontation, or communicative transcendence.
In this early work, Jaspers introduced several concepts which assumed great importance for all his work. Most importantly, this work contains a theory of the limit Grenze.
This term designates both the habitual forms and attitudes of the human mental apparatus, and the experiences of the mind as it recognizes these attitudes as falsely objectivized moments within its antinomical structure, and as it transcends these limits by disposing itself in new ways towards itself and its objects.
Limit situations are moments, usually accompanied by experiences of dread, guilt or acute anxiety, in which the human mind confronts the restrictions and pathological narrowness of its existing forms, and allows itself to abandon the securities of its limitedness, and so to enter new realm of self-consciousness.
In conjunction with this, then, this work also contains a theory of the unconditioned das Unbedingte. In this theory, Jaspers argued that limit situations are unconditioned moments of human existence, in which reason is drawn by intense impulses or imperatives, which impel it to expose itself to the limits of its consciousness and to seek higher or more reflected modes of knowledge.
The unconditioned, a term transported from Kantian doctrines of synthetic regress, is thus proposed by Jaspers as a vital impetus in reason, in which reason encounters its form as conditioned or limited and desires to transcend the limits of this form.
In this, he argued that the freedom of consciousness to overcome its limits and antinomies can only be elaborated through speech: that is, as a process in which consciousness is elevated beyond its limits through intensely engaged communication with other persons, and in which committed communication helps to suspend the prejudices and fixed attitudes of consciousness.
Existentially open consciousness is therefore always communicative, and it is only where it abandons its monological structure that consciousness can fully elaborate its existential possibilities.
In this early doctrine of communication, Jaspers helped to shape a wider communicative and intersubjective shift in German philosophy; indeed, the resonances of his existential hermeneutics remained palpable in the much later works of Hans-Georg Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur.
Less obviously, however, in this doctrine he also guided early existential thinking away from its original association with Kierkegaard and Nietzsche and, although assimilating Kierkegaardian elements of decisiveness and impassioned commitment, he claimed that Kierkegaard's cult of interiority, centred in the speechlessness of inner life, was a miscarried attempt to envision the conditions of human authenticity.
The decision for authentic self-overcoming and cognitive unity can only occur, he argued, through shared participation in dialogue.
In this work, he retained the partly Hegelian focus of his earlier publications, and he followed the spirit of Hegelian phenomenology in providing an account of the formation of human consciousness, which grasps consciousness as proceeding from the level of immediate knowledge and progressing through a sequence of antinomies towards a level of truthfully unified reflection and self-knowledge.
In this, Jaspers again accentuated the claim that the antinomies which reason encounters and resolves in its unfolding as truth are at once both cognitive and experiential antinomies, and that the lived moments of human existence are always of cognitively constitutive relevance for the formation of consciousness.
In his later philosophical works, especially Von der Wahrheit Of Truth , , he continued to give prominence to cognitive models derived from Hegelian phenomenology, and he proposed a concept of the encompassing das Umgreifende to determine the phenomenological gradations of thought and being.
Jaspers was born in Oldenburg in to a mother from a local farming community, and a jurist father. He showed an early interest in philosophy, but his father's experience with the legal system undoubtedly influenced his decision to study law at the University of Heidelberg.
It soon became clear that Jaspers did not particularly enjoy law, and he switched to studying medicine in with a thesis about criminology.
Jaspers earned his medical doctorate from the University of Heidelberg medical school in and began work at a psychiatric hospital in Heidelberg under Franz Nissl , successor of Emil Kraepelin and Karl Bonhoeffer , and Karl Wilmans.
Jaspers became dissatisfied with the way the medical community of the time approached the study of mental illness and gave himself the task of improving the psychiatric approach.
In Jaspers habilitated at the philosophical faculty of the Heidelberg University and gained there in a post as a psychology teacher.
The post later became a permanent philosophical one, and Jaspers never returned to clinical practice. During this time Jaspers was a close friend of the Weber family Max Weber also having held a professorship at Heidelberg.
In , at the age of 38, Jaspers turned from psychology to philosophy , expanding on themes he had developed in his psychiatric works.
He became a philosopher, in Germany and Europe. After the Nazi seizure of power in , Jaspers was considered to have a "Jewish taint" jüdische Versippung , in the jargon of the time due to his Jewish wife, and was forced to retire from teaching in In he fell under a publication ban as well.
Many of his long-time friends stood by him, however, and he was able to continue his studies and research without being totally isolated.
But he and his wife were under constant threat of removal to a concentration camp until 30 March , when Heidelberg was liberated by American troops.
In Jaspers moved to the University of Basel in Switzerland. Jaspers' dissatisfaction with the popular understanding of mental illness led him to question both the diagnostic criteria and the methods of clinical psychiatry.
He published a paper in in which he addressed the problem of whether paranoia was an aspect of personality or the result of biological changes.
Although it did not broach new ideas, this article introduced a rather unusual method of study, at least according to the norms then prevalent.
Not unlike Freud , Jaspers studied patients in detail, giving biographical information about the patients as well as notes on how the patients themselves felt about their symptoms.
This has become known as the biographical method and now forms a mainstay of psychiatric and above all psychotherapeutic practice.
Jaspers set down his views on mental illness in a book which he published in , General Psychopathology. One of Jaspers' central tenets was that psychiatrists should diagnose symptoms of mental illness particularly of psychosis by their form rather than by their content.
For example, in diagnosing a hallucination , it is more important to note that a person experiences visual phenomena when no sensory stimuli account for them, than to note what the patient sees.
What the patient sees is the "content", but the discrepancy between visual perception and objective reality is the "form".
Jaspers thought that psychiatrists could diagnose delusions in the same way. He argued that clinicians should not consider a belief delusional based on the content of the belief, but only based on the way in which a patient holds such a belief.
See delusion for further discussion. Jaspers also distinguished between primary and secondary delusions. He defined primary delusions as autochthonous , meaning that they arise without apparent cause, appearing incomprehensible in terms of a normal mental process.
This is a slightly different use of the word autochthonous than the ordinary medical or sociological use as a synonym for indigenous.
Secondary delusions, on the other hand, he defined as those influenced by the person's background, current situation or mental state. Jaspers considered primary delusions to be ultimately "un-understandable", since he believed no coherent reasoning process existed behind their formation.
This view has caused some controversy, and the likes of R. Laing and Richard Bentall , p. For instance Huub Engels argues that schizophrenic disordered speech may be understandable, just as Emil Kraepelin 's dream speech is understandable.
Most commentators associate Jaspers with the philosophy of existentialism , in part because he draws largely upon the existentialist roots of Nietzsche and Kierkegaard , and in part because the theme of individual freedom permeates his work.
In Philosophy 3 vols, , Jaspers gave his view of the history of philosophy and introduced his major themes. Beginning with modern science and empiricism , Jaspers points out that as we question reality , we confront borders that an empirical or scientific method simply cannot transcend.
At this point, the individual faces a choice: sink into despair and resignation, or take a leap of faith toward what Jaspers calls Transcendence.
In making this leap, individuals confront their own limitless freedom , which Jaspers calls Existenz , and can finally experience authentic existence.
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Walendy sued the German government repeatedly for their censoring his book.